Jainara Santos do Nascimento, João Carlos Silva Conceição and Eliane de Oliveira Silva* Pages 568 - 577 ( 10 )
Coumarins are natural 1,2-benzopyrones, present in remarkable amounts as secondary metabolites in edible and medicinal plants. The low yield in the coumarins isolation from natural sources, along with the difficulties faced by the total synthesis, make them attractive for biotechnological studies. The current literature contains several reports on the biotransformation of coumarins by fungi, which can generate chemical analogs with high selectivity, using mild and eco-friendly conditions. Prompted by the enormous pharmacological interest in the coumarin-related compounds, their alimentary and chemical applications, this review covers the biotransformation of coumarins by filamentous fungi. The chemical structures of the analogs were presented and compared with those from the pattern structures. The main chemical reactions catalyzed the insertion of functional groups, and the impact on the biological activities caused by the chemical transformations were discussed. Several chemical reactions can be catalyzed by filamentous fungi in the coumarin scores, mainly lactone ring opening, C3-C4 reduction and hydroxylation. Chunninghamella sp. and Aspergillus sp. are the most common fungi used in these transformations. Concerning the substrates, the biotransformation of pyranocoumarins is a rarer process. Sometimes, the bioactivities were improved by the chemical modifications and coincidences with the mammalian metabolism were pointed out.
Biotransformation, coumarin derivatives, coumarins, filamentous fungi, natural products, structural analogs.
Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia