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Xanthine Scaffold: Available Synthesis Routes to Deliver Diversity by Derivatization

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Rita Petrucci*, Marta Feroci, Leonardo Mattiello and Isabella Chiarotto*   Pages 27 - 42 ( 16 )

Abstract:


The functionalization of the skeletal systems of heterocycles represents a significant goal for the development of new compounds. The heterocyclic molecule xanthine (3,7-dihydro-1Hpurine- 2,6-dione) is a purine base with a bicyclic ring skeleton and four different nitrogen atoms, three of them are -NH groups. The principal derivatives are the well known natural methylxanthines (e.g., caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) that have prominent physiological effects at a very low dose. The natural methylated xanthines, theophylline, theobromine and caffeine, are present in different plants such as the tea, cocoa and coffee species. For this reason natural xanthines can be considered as bio-based and renewable starting materials; their use in organic synthesis is strongly recommended in order to carry out sustainable chemistry. Essentially, the xanthine scaffold led to the preparation of numerous compounds very attractive in the pharmaceutical field, and these drugs are commercialized for a wide range of biological activities. The scope of this mini-review is to consider the use of natural xanthines as starting material in chemical transformations carried out in organic solvents, without the intent to be exhaustive of all the synthetically chemical applications. More information on the chemical and electrochemical reactivity of this structural core in an organic solvent can be useful for the scientific community. The effectiveness of natural xanthines can be improved by modifying the structures of these already biologically active compounds.

Keywords:

Bio-based, chemical transformations, derivatives, electrochemical transformations, natural methylated xanthines, NHC complexes, xanthines.

Affiliation:

Dept. Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering (SBAI), Sapienza University of Rome, via del Castro Laurenziano, 7, 00161, Rome, Dept. Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering (SBAI), Sapienza University of Rome, via del Castro Laurenziano, 7, 00161, Rome, Dept. Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering (SBAI), Sapienza University of Rome, via del Castro Laurenziano, 7, 00161, Rome, Dept. Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering (SBAI), Sapienza University of Rome, via del Castro Laurenziano, 7, 00161, Rome

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